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Texas flag

Texas (/ˈtɛksəs/, also locally /ˈtɛksɪz/; Spanish: Texas, Tejas) is a state in the South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,660 km2), and with more than 30 million residents in 2023, it is the second-largest U.S. state by both area(after Alaska) and population (after California). Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and southwest; and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.

State of Texas



The Lone Star State



Anthem: "Texas, Our Texas"
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
Country United States
Before statehood Republic of Texas
Admitted to the Union December 29, 1845 (28th)
Capital Austin
Largest city Houston
Largest metro and urban areas Dallas–Fort Worth
Governor Greg Abbott (R)
Lieutenant Governor Dan Patrick (R)
Legislature Texas Legislature
Upper house Senate
Lower house House of Representatives
Judiciary Supreme Court of Texas (Civil)

Texas Court of Criminal Appeals(Criminal)

U.S. senators John Cornyn (R)

Ted Cruz (R)

U.S. House delegation 25 Republicans

13 Democrats (list)

• Total 268,596 sq mi (695,662 km2)
• Land 261,232 sq mi (676,587 km2)
• Water 7,365 sq mi (19,075 km2)  2.7%
• Rank 2nd
• Length 801 mi (1,289 km)
• Width 773 mi (1,244 km)
Elevation 1,700 ft (520 m)
Highest elevation

(Guadalupe Peak)

8,751 ft (2,667.4 m)
Lowest elevation

(Gulf of Mexico)

0 ft (0 m)


• Total 29,145,505
• Rank 2nd
• Density 114/sq mi (42.9/km2)
 • Rank 26th
Median household income $64,034
• Income rank 22nd
Demonym(s) TexanTexian (archaic)

Tejano (usually only used for Hispanics)

Official language None

(see Languages spoken in Texas)

Spoken language
  • English only: 64.9%
  • Spanish: 28.8%
  • Other: 6.3%
Time zones
Majority of state UTC−06:00 (Central)
• Summer (DST) UTC−05:00 (CDT)
El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson counties UTC−07:00(Mountain)
• Summer (DST) UTC−06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation TX
ISO 3166 code US-TX
Traditional abbreviation Tex.
Latitude 25°50′ N to 36°30′ N
Longitude 93°31′ W to 106°39′ W
State symbols of Texas
List of state symbols
Flag of Texas
Seal of Texas
Slogan The Friendly State
Living insignia
Bird Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)
Fish Guadalupe bass(Micropterus treculii)
Flower Bluebonnet (Lupinusspp., namely Texas bluebonnet, L. texensis)
Insect Monarch butterfly(Danaus plexippus)
Mammal Texas longhorn, nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)
Mushroom Texas star(Chorioactis geaster)
Reptile Texas horned lizard(Phrynosoma cornutum)
Tree Pecan (Carya illinoinensis)
Inanimate insignia
Food Chili
Game Texas 42 dominoes
Instrument Guitar
Shell Lightning whelk(Busycon perversum pulleyi)
Ship USS Texas
Soil Houston Black
Sport Rodeo
Other Molecule: Buckyball(For more, see article)
State route marker
State quarter
Released in 2004
Lists of United States state symbols

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth-largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second most populous in the state and seventh-largest in the country. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are, respectively, the fourth- and fifth-largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State for its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The Lone Star can be found on the Texas state flag and the Texas state seal.